Thursday, November 29, 2012

Opportunity to Participate in Survey on Student Use of Tech at Your Institution

Yesterday I was looking around for samples of institutional surveys that ask students what tech they use and how they use it. The most recent driver was a faculty member’s observation that students didn’t always have a device for viewing the e-text that was used for application work in their course, nor was there a way to easily display the e-text for the entire class.

Here is a no-cost opportunity that I came across by the very dependable Educause’s applied research wing:

ECAR provides this intro:
Why Participate in the ECAR Student Study?
The primary benefit of participating in this study is to gain an understanding of how your students use technology, their assessment of their technical skills, the extent to which they use information technologies in their courses, and their perspectives about the impact of IT on their academic experience. Participating institutions will receive an aggregate-level summary that compares their students with students at similar institutions. Institutions will also receive the responses of their students in digital form (i.e., raw data files) so that they can conduct further analysis. The estimated time for the online version is twenty minutes. Institutions have two options for student participation: students can submit their email addresses with the survey for a random drawing for gift cards, or the institution can exclude that option.

A detailed checklist and clear directions for participation are provided from application, to IRB options, to delivery of data to participants. Institutions have until January 31, 2013 to indicate their wish to participate and survey activity ends in April, 2013.

What an opportunity to have the feedback for institutional practices that provide even more support for student learning. Will your college be participating? 

Sunday, November 18, 2012

"Howard Rheingold on Essential Media Literacies"

This is a six minute plus interview with elearning expert Howard Rheingold naming and defining social media categories he considers significant:
  • Attention
  • Participation
  • Collaboration
  • Network Saavy
  • Critical Consumption
While participation, collaboration and network saaviness are widely remarked upon, his contributions are about "attention skills" and "critical consumption". He notes that there are some tasks that call for very focused attention, but effective multi-tasking skills for the "always on" world, are not widely taught. As for critical consumption, it involves evaluation of sources, but also the use of time and strategies for grabbing what is of value. 

He defines Digital Divide in this way: "Those who know how to use the mind and technology and those who do not."

If you have not been following him, this is just a sample of what he's sharing out!

Sunday, October 7, 2012

Technology Time: An Interview about Promoting independence and Self-Sufficiency for Those with Brain Injuries and Memory Issues

Blogger's Note About This Collaboratively-Written Post by Alice Bedard-Voorhees and Alice Brouhard: Many thanks to you, Alice Brouhard, for generously sharing your time to talk about work that demonstrates such potential for people with brain injuries and conditions affecting memory, for the review of the technical facts, and additions to this text.

Alice Brouhard, RN and Trainer researches applications and devices and teaches others to use technology to support their independence and self-management. That support comes in the form of IPad, Ipod Touch, smartphones and apps.

While key to learning, self-management is a major component for personal independence. But what happens when a brain injury or other condition impairs memory or other functions related to self-management and communication?

Alice’s expertise evolved from a very personal level. It began about twenty-five years ago when her fully normal five year old daughter was run into by an out-of-control skier on a Colorado ski slope, suffering diffuse brain injury that required multiple brain surgeries, a “cranioplasty” to repair her skull, and left her in a two month-long coma. These injuries rendered her legally blind, with left-side paralysis, and significant cognitive challenges.

As her daughter approached adulthood, Alice started to look to help her daughter be independent based on her expressed desire for independence and the wish to live on her own. In 2005, Alice learned about a customized computer and software, “Visions for Independent Living” with voice prompts delivered in “a terrible voice.”

Alice recalled: “We had to buy the totally customized software with timed voice reminders, and picture and audio based task prompting to guide her through her day.  This software required a dedicated computer (“Lucille”) just for it and an $800.00 touch screen monitor.  The total cost for all of this was around $5000.00., plus the cost of assistance with some of the initial setup. “

“The next software we bought (after we figured out how to use Kara’s own voice to record prompts on “Lucille”) was from a company called Ablelink Technologies.  Their system was called “Voyager.”  It provided the same sort of voice prompts and task prompting that “Visions” provided.   The cost for “Voyager” software was greater than $500.00. “

“We bought the “Voyager” software from Ablelink after Kara’s initial computer died in 2008.  “Visions” would not run on the Windows 7 computer we had to buy. “Voyager”/Ablelink was difficult to use initially but I had to learn it out of necessity as Kara was in her own house by then and LIVED by her computer to be successful and self-sufficient.”

Over time, Alice worked to design the strategy for a person affected by a brain tumor. AbleLink was loaded on a PDA, a 2008 purchase. They adapted the PDA for that person with reminders. Then The Ipod touch came out. They added an external mic to add the voice prompts, and also utilized Notes and Calendar a difference for this person who could read.

Then the iPad 1 came out in 2010, the year she bought an Ipod touch. Then the iPad 2 in 2011. With built-in mic and picture capabilities and I was hooked!!!  I bought my iPad that year!  That is when I would go into an Apple store and ask “how do you do this, how do you do that….?” 

Most recently, Alice customized the My Talk app to help a young man communicate the range of feelings he is feeling as the result of loss of eyesight and voice from a long-board accident. She has considered how this application could assist patients who are recovering from strokes and having language issues.

My Talk had the capacity to provide categories of feelings with deeper menus for expressing gradiations of those feelings. It allowed both visual and auditory responses.

My Talk also allowed the user to indicate  desired activities.

“I started looking at voice recorders for the person who had had the brain tumor….the IPad had a built in one, but I found easier ones to use. I started Googling Apps w/ Brain Injuries and started finding apps that “blew me out of the water.” Then I found a ninety-nine cent app that replaced the original timed-voice prompts. Then AbleLink came up with a fifty dollar app that replaced video/picture/audio prompts. Since then I’ve been exploring another that may replace it at little or now cost.”

During this ongoing conversation, she mentions a stream of apps, including one called “It’s Done,”—an app which notifies a caregiver when the supported individual has completed a task.

She researches apps for auditory notifications and text notifications, since user capacities vary.

The Touch and Learn—Emotions app can to help a person distinguish and communicate various emotions. For example, a person listens to the word "unhappy" and chooses the picture best showing that emotion.

She focuses on scheduling/memory, home safety, daily living skills and leisure skills in the apps that she identifies, demos, and uses. Her criteria are for apps that are low cost as possible, ease of set-up, and the ability to individualize it for the needs of the users. She says that in the last seven years, the cost of technologies and apps has decreased from that earlier $5000 price tag to as little as $500.

Aida Reminder allows the individual to create the audio reminders with his or her own voice.

Visual Impact Pro provides voice and text sequences to support accomplishment of day-to-day tasks.

Throughout this process, Alice has communicated with app developers and shares that developers have been very responsive and timely to such input. She also has learned to read the details before updating to understand capability of an app in an upgrade. (Aida Reminder with Voice is an example with the IOS6 upgrade.)

Now Alice is providing workshops to Individuals with disabilities, agencies serving those with disabilities and the aging, OT’s, PT’s and caretakers. Sessions are hands-on to teach others to research the apps and put them on Apple products –Iphone, IPad, ITouch.

A key message she brings to her work is that “we all have to “take time for technology” as it is ubiquitous. To learn to use it is will allow us to utilize it to our advantage, including the elderly and disabled who are often characterized as “too old or not capable of utilizing technology.”

Alice’s daughter now lives in her own house with webcam technology and her memory supports on an IPad she purchased herself from her own small business endeavors. Alice’s observation is that her daughter has internalized some of the prompts, as evidenced by her starting tasks before the reminders activate.

This discussion has relevance given the number of war veterans returning from duty with signature brain-injuries: Stats for War-Related Brain Injury can be viewed at It also has great relevance to statistical projections for the development of Alzheimers  and dementia in aging populations. Add to that potential for support for support of Asbergers, and the development of self-management of young adults in various educational situations.

For those of you who wish to contact Alice Brouhard more directly on this topic, she can be reached at

Friday, September 28, 2012

MobiMOOC Week 3: Why MOOC?


I'm enrolled in three-week-long MobiMOOC 2012 right now, and am taking it for two knowledge-based reasons (goals?)--to learn more about the use  of Mobile Devices and to become better with my participation skills in the MOOC course experience.

My participation has been less than stellar. I have one badge so far, and my actually earn a second. 
The organization is quite good, but I've had trouble finding some topics to post two after a week has gone by.


Knowing I was participating in a MOOC, a colleague emailed this week about an internal discussion they were having about MOOC offerings--she asked for some thoughts, so here goes:

I'd ask what the institution wishes to gain from offering a MOOC? Prof Dev/continuous learning
for a workforce? The appearance of offering a cutting edge model? Recruitment potential? Why do faculty members come forward and ask to offer MOOCs? Given the existing MOOCs, if a student came forward with the highest badge of MOOC completion, which current MOOC courses would your institution accept? (CSU Global is now accepting Udacity's Intro to Computer Science: Building a Search Engine for Credt:

I also included a link to a Higher Ed discussion about the use of MOOCs for Dev Ed. Though Dev Ed is the course topic. I thought it offered some other good thinking points--ones being use of MOOC curriculumm in hybrid models:

That said, I note that I feel more enthusiastic when I start to read and respond to others remarks, and to view the webinars. I tend to need time to think about things before I write; and I also know I'm burnt out on the amount of textworld I've been dealing with. 

Excuses aside, I congratulate Inge Ingatia de Waaard for providing this learning opportunity. I have at least one more post related directly related to the mobimooc topic-- the course did inspire me to interview a woman who is training others in the use of Ipad and Itouch devices and apps to support self-management and independence by users with brain injuries and memory issues.

Wednesday, September 19, 2012

MobiMOOC Week 2: Am I a Wonderful Participant?

This fall is the first time I’ve not been teaching online, face-to-face, or working in the training field since I can remember. I’ve been describing this fall as “a sabbatical” with the intention to read and continue learning about the recent developments in cognitive science and learning, and technology for learning. It has been a luxury to have time to read and think, though I would admit, I’m not doing much writing online, and ascribe this to the amount of online facilitation and communications from which I was taking a break. When I saw the MobiMOOC opportunity at, I thought “Great, this is a great opportunity to learn more about mobility AND better understand how MOOCs work. This said, I was already a one-time MOOC drop-out.

Initially, I had admirable intentions: I sought out Dave’s Cormier’s advice on successful MOOC participation: “Orient, Declare, Network, Cluster, and Focus.” (View my post on his earlier slideshare on this topic.) And before the course even started, I posted a note communication my anticipation to meet and learn with and from colleagues.

By the end of week one, I thought, “I’d better get in there. As I read through more of the intros, I was energized by the good will, the experience, and the global assembly of peers in the course. Ignatia’s general discussion prompt for Week 2 was inviting—asking us what tools we used. I liked the word tools—it allowed the spectrum, devices, browsers, services, applications—which is also a lot of landscape.

Devices: I use a laptop, a smartphone, a tablet.
Apps, Sites, and Services: These include Evernote, Dropbox, Skype, all things Google, Kindle Reader, Goodreader. Twitter, Conjuverb, The Wasteland (Ipad), Jazz Timeline (Ipad). I love resources at Smarthistory and Open Culture, YouTube, Linked In Groups, Searches w/ Google and Wikipedia are used for a quick sense of background on a given topic. And I learn from experts and peers through live webinars in Google Hangout, Blackboard Connect, WiziQ, or Adobe Connect.

Today I participated in Bijay’s webinar on single source design for web-learning. If you missed it, the recording is available here:

At this point in Week 2, I won’t say I’m such a wonderful participant as the badge promises, but I really do feel connected and engaged and am happy I attended the webinar today by Bijoy Banerjee on universal platform design for multiple devices. We joined from various locations such as Australia, England, India, and the U.S. Not only did he reinforce the categories involved in mLearning, he explained how html5 allows for universal design across devices. He used screen share to provide examples and demonstrate their learning activities for both K-12 and post-secondary students.

Monday, September 10, 2012

Look at this Slideshare: Social Media Management for Events

Have you been to events that use social media such as Twitter, but there seems to be a lot of confusion about the #hashtags,for instance? This presentation provides tips on the management of social media with specific events, as well as the bigger picture of relationship building.

Tuesday, September 4, 2012

"Designing and Running a MOOC" by George Siemens

As I said, more on MOOC's -- this time from the design and facilitation side. Thanks to George Siemens, MOOC pioneer, for sharing the most recent presentation. Thanks also to the colleague from MOBIMOOC that brought it to my attention.

Friday, August 24, 2012

How to Successfully Participate in a MOOC

It's been a while since I signed up for a MOOC. A friend and I were recently discussing our early experiences and pretty much agreed that it had been chaotic and we'd gone away-- If I'd had Dave Cormier's advice, I think the experience would have been much different. His four minute plus presentation on successful participation advises us to "Orient, Declare, Network, Cluster, and Focus." Very helpful--I would include this as an orientation for anyone signing up for a MOOC. Now on to examining the experience of those teaching in one.

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Dissident Voices

I am going to see this film tonight. Even with the trailer, a person gets the sense of risk for speaking out about subjects that a given country does not want to surface. We all have to ask ourselves how this plays out in our own countries. More after the actual viewing:

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Happy Birthday Julia

Whether you are a foodie like @rffoodie, or a culinary educator, today is a day to celebrate the contributions and love of Julie Child on the occasion of her 100th birthday. View this short video about the Smithsonian's re-creation of her kitchen. Enjoy!

Friday, August 3, 2012

More Lip About Flip (Flipped Classroom)

This inforgraphic presents one study of how the flipped classroom model in a high school and how it improved success rates. It was link from a Twitter post by @sewsueme whether Flipped could work for higher ed: Again, the flipped idea is to have students view or be introduced to concepts they will work with in class. Flipped Classroom

Created by Knewton and Column Five Media

What will video or slideshows change for instructors and learners? What instructors (often?) did in class after you assigned the reading for the next class like going over the main points of the reading and asking questions/giving quizzes/taking questions over the reading. The next step was to have people start applying it in class or introducing them to the homework before they left the class. The flipped version would have people read and view the slides, take the quiz, and know what they will be doing with the content in the next class. Comments to the EdTech article reminded people that thumb drives and DVDs could still provide out-of-class content used by student who might not have internet access outside of class. That said, I know one thing. This model supports use of class time for valuable learning support. And it takes time to create the materials, and space for faculty to upload materials, and that we shouldn't shy away from trying flipped approaches, that we can do so iteratively.

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Certifiably Flipped

My Flipped Classroom Certificate
This rumpled certificate arrived this week, along with my T-Shirt for successfully completing the Flipped Classroom Pathway Course . There were tutorials to listen to and quizzes to take. The last step was to create a flipped classroom tutorial, publish it to the site and submit it for review.

Hot though it may be at the moment, this flipping idea is not new. I seem to remember Patricia Cross made a remark to similar effect several years ago when asking why we spent so much time imparting the knowledge level info during class when we could be spending class time helping students apply the knowledge.

So though I was familiar with the concept, I found myself feeling a bit nervous when it came to creating the tutorial. The fields for listing the course description, objectives, and tags were helpful, as were tips for not only providing a slideshow or video.

What I found even more helpful were the tips on adding other documents or quizzes that would increase the impact of the tutorial you wanted learners to complete after viewing the tutorial. These items can certainly add to the preparation you want students to have before the face-to-face or live class session where the students are going to work with the material at a higher level.

Whether a person is going to search and use found materials as part of the pre-class session is up to the faculty member. The real opportunity is how to use to face-to-face time to best support the higher learning.

Thursday, June 7, 2012

Can you get wireless on Amtrak?

The Zephier Line Has Outlets But No Wireless
Yesterday I asked the question about whether you can connect wirelessly on Amtrak. The answer--in some instances you can on trains and in some instances you can do so at the depot.

Here's the list:

Yet to explore: how effective your mobile hotspot is on various trains that don't have wireless.

Last year I faced some very icy roads and took the train to get into Denver. I appreciated the outlets so I could at least work on my laptop and keep my phone charged.

Wireless access is a great addition.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

At Which Location Are You Most Productive?

Gist created a wonderful infographic on devices and work mobility. One of the items in this info- graphic represented people indicating the location they where they felt most productive: Office (46%), Home (38%), and "No Preference"(9%). The "No Preference" categories included planes, hotels, public transportation and coffee shops.

I now work from home, and sometimes go to a coffee shop when I need a change of scene to buoy productivity that seems to have slowed. While traveling I work from multiple locations, and this is now even easier with the wifi hotspot capacity from my phone.

In the last two organization-based positions, one employer did not see why a person would possibly want to work from home. I shared that I could get up in the morning, pull on running clothes, work hard till noon, go for a run, then clean up and finish the work day. The time not spent getting dressed until after I worked and exercised added to my productivity.

The other organizational workplace had a set day where all employees were on site for meetings and interactions, then had a schedule for when some teams were on site while the others telecommuted.
Because there is benefit to having face time and proximity, this seemed like a great solution.

What's been your experience? One question--have you been able to get a hotspot while riding Amtrack?

Thursday, May 10, 2012

I Want to Be Like Carin Goldberg

   It's good to have people to admire: Descriptors and Thoughts from Carin Goldberg, Book-Designer

Wordle Based on"Hall of Femmes" entry by @Brainpickings

Twain on Plagiarism and If I Ever Get Sent to Hell

@brainpicker shared a letter from Mark Twain to Helen Keller on the subject of shared ideas and the subject of plagiarism. To quote her, she wrote, "If you read nothing else this week, make it Mark Twain's letter to Helen Keller on plagiarism:

And so I did. Because I figure if I ever get sent to Hell, it might well involve dealing with plagiarism in one form or another--which I here define as the use of others words and specific ideas without acknowledgement.  I spent years teaching research and writing in higher ed, worked in training units where we produced training materials, did a plagiarism webinar, wrote papers, worked to persuade other faculty into making first events teachable moments rather than range wars, and learning from a student who bought a paper that she because she bought it she could use it however she pleased--which was to submit it for a grade.

But back to Mark and Helen. In this letter, Twain declares that most everything in the human condition comes from our shared pool of ideas:

          "...and there is not a rag of originality about them anywhere except the discoloration they get his mental and moral calibre and his temperament, and which is revealed in characteristics of phrasing"

And it is the "characteristics of phrasing" that invokes the great plagiarism tempest--the fixed form the idea takes. Copyright law protects a persons right to make a living based on those fixed forms, and academics base their value on the contribution of both ideas and words (which is nicely acknowledged and shared via Creative Commons).

Twain was a man unafraid to wrangle with trying circumstances or recognize an albatross for what it was-- and at times teaching of appropriate acknowledgement certainly falls into either category. I agree with Twain the ideas we express very likely come from a long line of others' ideas. And I support saying where they come from, an idea which communicates our shared history.

Friday, May 4, 2012

LinkedIn and Slideshare

Just as the last post embedded a slideshare presentation, the news has broken: LinkedIn has acquired Slideshare and Twitter is hopping with the news:!/search/realtime/linkedin%20%2B%20slideshare

And here's is LinkedIn's Cute (yes, Cute) Release using Slideshare

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

Sharing Out My ELCC Presentation

The E-Learning Consortium of Colorado has been hosting a conference for over 20 years now, and it is a wonderful conference because it is truly a peer-led teaching and learning event.

Here's my presentation. Additionally related sites can be found at this Delicious link:

Monday, April 16, 2012

Evaluating the Khan Academy App on Ipad

So many people were excited with the 60 Minutes feature on the Khan Academy. Additionally, I was excited when the Khan Academy broadened its model to include other disciplines, specifically the art video discussions from Smarthistory--the open art history textbook.

And then the iPad and iPhone apps were released. I was euphoric. So I downloaded it to my iPad.
As did a reviewer Lisa Caplan:

Compare with The Wasteland app, for T.S. Eliot's great poem: The Khan Academy would benefit from the tips feature in this app. Validating that is this blogger's observation: What I also love about this app is all elements are contained within so you don't need to be online once you've downloaded the app to your device.

My first app was the History of Jazz timeline--it's newest version does provide some tips on the features, an improvement over it's earlier iteration and videos are now embedded in the app:

But back to Khan Academy iPad App. Future iterations could incorporate some tips from the apps above. I found it difficult to find the exercises and videos -- they were available as small links in my profile. Not all parts of the app are populated with content, and while it gave me "energy points," with no orientation, I am not clear on what the points indicate. Additionally, the points for watching a video were not tracked, though I did watch more than one. So here's to future iterations--with Smarthistory added to Khan, it will be great to have these impressive resources available on a variety of devices.

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Sharing Resources With Colleagues at ELCC: Start the Video

I love attending the Colorado E-Learning Consortium Conference, now in its 23rd year. This is a great
peer teaching conference. My session explored multiple sites with great academic video, how to use bookmarking to track those finds, and what opportunities there are for involving students. Many of the related sites for this session are bookmarked here:

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Video Title "What is Curation?" Invites a Question about Audience

As I opened the weekly update from Brainpickings this morning, I saw this delightful video on curation
which has been on my mind ever since I read about the concept in  Gregory Ulmer's book ten years ago.

What is Curation? from Percolate on Vimeo.

Brainpickings notes this is the first of a series of videos on curation from this group. I think a key takeaway from this video is that we may select things for ourselves, but thinking about audience is key to understanding how it may be of interest to others (like ourselves, or our customers as the case may be).

I would say that my audience is others who are studying the e-age for the sake of learning that will allow us to work and live smarter --looking forward to more of these videos.

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

In Addition to the Western World View: Talking to Rocks

A number of events this week remind me of the world of multiple perspectives. One was a post-graduation survey I took from the last institution I attended asking whether diverse cultural perspectives were present in course readings, discussions, and assignments. Then this afternoon I was talking to a colleague who is advising on a science curriculum that also includes cultural competencies.

As synchronicity would have it, a past student posted this video on her FB page today. It added to my memory of a Vine Deloria, Jr. book that talked about the Lakota description of rocks as envoys between the earth and other beings. Albert here also takes the discussion to what it is to a being in the Lakota culture in contrast to the Western explanation.

Rocks are Relatives from Jennifer Page on Vimeo.

Sunday, February 26, 2012

"A Manifesto for Teaching Online"

Looking at the related site for this video, I am so pleased to see these tenets come forward. It articulates many of the really critical ideas, beginning with the very statement that online is not lesser, but a "difference of location."

Ever since I first learned about Moore's definition of distance as a 'psychological construct," I thought about how a person could as much experience distance in a physical classroom, let alone online. And this is only the beginning of all this manifesto expresses.

Also memorable is the tenet is that "Each course design is the expression of a philosophy and practice."

I found this next statement to be quite provocative: "Teaching should not be downgraded to facilitation." I've been calling what I do facilitation in that it describes a guide role rather than the traditional instructor at the front. Yet this statement surfaced something that has really been part of my practice--to bring resources and opportunities to the online course in response to learning needs, interests, and requests. And the flexibility to do so can happen if course elements are not locked down.

Originating from the University of Edinborough, "It is a series of brief statements that attempt to capture what is generative and productive about online teaching, course design, writing, assessment and community."

A manifesto for teaching online from Jen Ross on Vimeo.

I encourage you to visit the accompanying website. Visiting the site will provide more information on its intention--to forward dialogue about these ideas:

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

First Day Review ala Speed Dating

Creative Commons Licensed Work by MikeCrane83
My friend Roy just shared an opening day exercise with learners in the second course of a two-course sequence, based on the speed dating model. He said most of the students already knew each other from the other class and he wanted them to review some material as they entered the second term.

So he had them pair off, then gave them a question to discuss for three minutes. After the first three minutes, one of the pair would move on to discuss the next question with another person. He used 8 questions this time out, and said students asked to do that activity again.

The move and talk model not only keeps the interest going. His take was students were not only teaching each other and uncoving misconceptions, but "switching-up voices" provided another way of explaining the concept, possibly making it more clear than an earlier explanation.

Thanks, Roy! I love that you keep sharing these energizing practices.

Friday, January 20, 2012

Jan. Apple Announcements: The "Digitization of Education"

Between 8 and 9 am yesterday, a colleague wrote to me w/ the link to the live announcements Apple was making in NYC about their new interactive book and authoring products, asking if I was tuned in to the event. The channels have been on fire with remarks, including my email response to her:

I spent some time looking at the IBookstore and IBookAuthor and the Twitter counter from the creator (earlier Apple Engineer) of Push Pop Press,, which Facebook bought earlier
this year, saying Apple's product looks likes his re-branded.
I loved the products and still can't help but think about the competition between good inventions and intentions with market share (vendor bondage). This continues to raise the question of technology and privilege.

On the positive side, I've been watching custom publishing since the around nineteen ninety and also think about how we tried to get publishers working with CCCOnline to consider books as only one of their digital assets. And now the devices have added a twist once again. 

Last, I intend to carefully read Apple rights to the books created with IAuthor. I'm not clear on that yet.